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Metatarsalgia: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Minute Read

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Posted 5 months ago

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Last updated: 04/12/2022

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by James McCormack

Metatatarsalgia Anatomy

The long bones in the forefoot are called metatarsals and the joint where they meet the toes is called the metatarsophalangeal joint. You can locate the metatarsophalangeal joint by lifting your toes and sliding your finger down towards the ball of the foot. You’ll find a slight hollow where the toe meets the metatarsal head; this is the location of Metatarsalgia.Metatarsalgia Diagram

Symptoms of Metatarsalgia

Metatarsalgia is a painful condition of the sole of the forefoot. Symptoms are worsened by standing, walking barefoot or in poor supporting footwear. Patients often describe a burning sensation on the underside of the foot at the base of the toes.

There may be numbness or tingling in the base of the foot, and patients sometimes describe the sensation of a pebble in their shoes, although this is more common in Morton’s Neuroma.

Other factors that irritate the symptoms of Metatarsalgia are walking on hard surfaces or impact activities such as skipping or running.

Causes of Metatarsalgia

Several physiological factors and environmental factors can cause Metatarsaglia.

Physiological

  • Flat Foot Deformity
  • Hammer Toes
  • High arches
  • Bunions
  • Dropped Metatarsal Heads
  • Obesity
  • Arthritis
  • Gout

Environmental Factors

  • Poor Fitting Shoes
  • Running
  • Skipping
  • High Heels
  • Worn-out Trainers
  • Sudden Increase in Impact Activities.

Diagnosis of Metatarsalgia

A Physical Therapist or a Sports Medicine Doctor are in the best position to diagnose Metatarsalgia. A clinical examination that involves a clinical interview of your symptoms followed by a physical exam of your foot can be sufficient to diagnose Metatarsalgia. The assessment will look at any foot deformities that may be causing your Metatarsalgia pain and palpation of the area to rule out other similar conditions. The clinician may occasionally refer you for imaging if they need assistance with a differential diagnosis.

An MRI is the gold standard scan for diagnosing Metatarsalgia. An ultrasound is a useful tool and a cost-effective solution for soft tissue structures of the ball of the foot but it is not as sensitive for bone injuries as an MRI while an x-ray is useful for diagnosing bone injuries such as a stress fracture but it can’t assess inflammation within the joint.

Home Remedies for Metatarsalgia

Metatarsalgia is primarily an inflammatory condition and in most cases, the symptoms of Metatarsalgia can be eased with home treatment. While this is beneficial, it is important to address the causes. We discuss this later in the article.

The best home remedies for Metatarsalgia that we recommend to our patients are:

  • Ice your forefoot for 10-15 minutes, 3-4 times daily
  • Reduce the amount of time on your feet
  • When on your feet, wear cushioned, stability shoes
  • Place a gel pad under your forefoot when walking without shoes at home
  • Apply anti-inflammatory gel such as Voltaren
  • Reduce excess body weight if necessary
  • If you need to exercise, choose non-impact activities such as swimming

Metatarsalgia Treatment

A Podiatrist or Physical Therapist is best placed to provide conservative treatment for Metatarsalgia. We will discuss how they approach treatment for Metatarsalgia and if this is unsuccessful, a referral to a Sports Doctor or Foot & Ankle Consultant may be necessary.

As an inflammatory condition, the first stage of treatment involves a lifestyle discussion around reducing the time you spend on your feet and what you wear on your feet when you are active. Cushioned trainers are often recommended, alongside a gel pad in the first instance. A gait analysis can reveal the necessity for insoles or custom orthotics in some cases, while a stability trainer may be sufficient otherwise.

An assessment may reveal muscular imbalances that can be improved with Metatarsalgia exercises. These can improve the balance, stability and mobility of the foot through strengthening exercises and stretches of the ankle and lower leg.

Other Treatment Options

Other forms of treatment for short-term pain relief can include acupuncture, massage to the calf muscles and sole of the foot, compression socks, the use of a massage gun on the calf muscles and KT Tape.

If conservative treatment is unsuccessful, a referral for an ultrasound-guided steroid injection can be beneficial in reducing inflammation and pain within the metatarsophalangeal joint. This may be followed by 1-2 weeks in a walker boot for pain relief while allowing the injection to take maximum effect. Following this, continued conservative treatment is recommended.

In severe cases that fail conservative treatment, you may require surgery. Depending on the cause of pain, surgery can involve an elevatory osteotomy, a decompression osteotomy or a transpositional osteotomy.

Physiotherapy with James McCormack

This is not medical advice. We recommend a consultation with a medical professional such as James McCormack. He offers Online Physiotherapy Appointments for £45.

Related Article: Metatarsalgia Exercises 

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